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WAISTCOATS AND WAISTCOAT DESIGNS 
1700 -i952 



THE COOPER UNION MUSEUM 
FOR THE ARTS OF DECORATION 



CrtHiREF ACKNOWLEDGMENT 

In assembling material for the exhibition, the Museum has received 
helpful suggestions and information from the following, to whom 
are given most grateful thanks: 

Alan R. Gilbert,, m.b.e. 
Richard C. Greenleaf 
Chauncey D. Hunter 
Harry E. Lichter 
Mrs. Ralph Pulitzer 
Mr. and Mrs. Seymour Slive 
Miss Mary Smith 
Arthur Todd 
Bernard Weatherill 



Copyright 1952 by The Cooper Union Museum for the Arts of Decoration 



INTRODUCTION 



The leisure class is more than a theory: it is a portion of society, some- 
times persistent, sometimes ephemeral. Leisure, to be exploited with 
any style, requires means and attendants; the world's fickle way insures 
that this blithe status shall be erratically enjoyed, and by few. Today's 
moujik may be tomorrow's commissar, and vice versa, in any system. Through- 
out history, as estates rise and fall, the least settled, yet the most distinct in 
its pastimes, avocations and insignia, is that group which because of fortune 
and aptitude has also the least to do. It is they who fill time with ritual and 
garnish fashion with detail; it is the transient noblesse who embroider the 
fabric of their lives. We would be churlish to draw any moral from this, for 
the contributions of inspired idleness to wit, to delicacy, and to all those 
captivating futilities which give the world its spice and novelty are very real. 
Theories, too, of the origin of clothes are almost as numerous as articles of 
clothing, but it is certain that "costume" as distinct from "clothing" has 
precedence. As a device for increasing sexual attractiveness, as magical amu- 
lets, tribal identification, evidence of caste, display of trophies or pure 
aesthetic pleasure, costume antedates clothing, for clothing is the fate of the 
civilized; costume is a necessity of culture. 

In European society and its derivatives, the male, when conditions are 
stable, has occupied a conventional and conservative position as protector, 
provider and patriarch. His apparel, for the most part, has been of a standard 
kind. Engaged in accumulating goods (or any commodity of power) he dis- 
plays his resources soberly. He conforms to an idea of establishment, and 
his state is set forth in the size of his house, his mate's jewels, the price of his 
pictures, or the volume of his charity. But let the future become uncertain, 
let prospects seem capricious, and he renounces his hard-won human drabness 
and reverts to sartorial pomp. Woman's costume has been, leisure permitting, 
an incessant displacement of one pattern by another. Man's has changed 
substantially only when events have changed his vision of himself. And it is 
during such unsteady seasons that vagaries in dress are exercised, especially 
if the male has the resources, the bravado, and vacant hours. The "piked 
shoon" and bagpipe sleeves of the waning Middle Ages, the frenzied puffs 
and slashings affected by the Landsknecht of the Thirty Years' War, the 
showers of lace and ribbon at wrist and knee worn by Charles II's cavaliers, 
the immoderate finery of macaroni and incroyable, all were portents of un- 
easy futures, flourishes by those whose mood was exquisitely self-indulgent. 
Until Valentino made the open-necked shirt a mark of virility, a man's 
chest was an area to be protected. It needs no freedom, as do the arms and 



legs, but the organs within must be defended. Greek foot-soldiers wore the 
leather thorax, Roman legionaries the lorica, the cuirass continued an essen- 
tial item in knightly costume long after chivalry had faded. From the 
fourteenth century to about 1660 the jacket worn either under the cuirass 
or independently, and most commonly called a doublet, underwent changes 
of cut and decoration until it became a scanty, square-cut vest. 

As the precursor of the waistcoat, the doublet has been almost universally 
accepted by historians of costume, though it is difficult to trace any clear line 
of descent. The waistcoat proper, an intermediate rather than outer or inner 
garment, more probably developed separately, or as an adaptation of some- 
thing like the two jackets (Nos. 67 and 78) of the late sixteenth century, 
underneath the cuirass. The pattern and finish of this knitted work make 
it obvious that once the armor was laid off, the jacket would still be worn, 
as today a sleeveless sweater is worn with or without a coat. The waistcoat, 
or as it was first called, a "vest", came into fashion in England, according to 
John Evelyn the diarist, in 1663 or 1664. About the same time the justaucorps 
("frock" coat) and veste (long-skirted waistcoat) were introduced on the Con- 
tinent; Louis XIV originated the justaucorps a brevet, a garment which could 
be obtained only by royal patent; the coat and waistcoat were a sign of 
kingly favor and aristocracy until the Revolution. 

Waistcoats of the early eighteenth century are ample, exuberant garments 
(Nos. 2*, 16*, 17*, 18*, 19*, 69*), sometimes sleeved and worn without a 
coat as informal undress. Their decoration, comprising floral patterns in 
polychrome silk and metal threads, of impetuous design, was laid upon satin 
or damask grounds of bold color and brilliant sheen. Until about 1750 they 
reached within an inch or two of the knee, the skirts being buckramed in 
front, with pleats at the back. Cuffs were meant to be seen protruding from 
the even more ornate cuffs of the outer coat, and it was not unusual for both 
garments to be impressively embroidered in violently contrasting colors. 
During the eighteenth century there is slight difference between clothing 
produced for the haut monde in England and on the Continent: France was 
the center from which fashion radiated, and contemptuous though other 
nations might be of the frippery and frivolity of Versailles, they were quick 
enough to imitate when their purses could withstand the strain. By 1750 
the skirts of the waistcoat had become as salient as a rococo curve. Held out 
with crinoline, the pockets scalloped and set at angles, the borders stiff with 
tinsel, the waistcoat was even more rakish in that the top and bottom buttons 
were left undone, to display the lace jabot and satin breeches (Nos. 21, 72). 

The expense of these garments was so great that even court favorites could 
hardly afford to buy them: they were rented for special occasions, such as the 
marriage of the Dauphin in 1745, for sums of thousands of francs. With the 



beginning of the reign of Louis XVI (1774), or shortly before, waistcoats are 
subdivided into three distinct types, the veste, with sleeves and skirts, the 
veston, with shorter skirts and small pocket flaps, and the gilet, without 
sleeves or skirts, worn with the frac. The gilet may have gained its name 
from the sleeveless tunic of the clown Gilles le Niais, or from Gille, supposed 
to be the first manufacturer; yet during a period when it was imperative for 
the man of fashion to count his waistcoats by the hundreds, economy occa- 
sioned the form. The outer coat, or frac, with tight sleeves and heavy cuffs, 
was so costly and often so plain that variety was supplied by the waistcoat. 
When this could be backed with plain cloth, or merely laced up the back and 
kept without sleeves, expense could be reduced and the smaller field of decora- 
tion sprinkled, spotted and emblazoned with every sort of pictorial whim. 

The waistcoat was now usually white with colored silk embroidery. Liter- 
ally anything was used as a motif: gardens (No. 22*), insects (No. 32*), 
bullfights (No. 30*), cockfights (No. 3*), boarhunts (No. 42), scenes from 
mythology (No. 43) and vignettes of the theatre (No. 44*), not to mention 
chinoiserie conceits (No. 34) and amatory passages bucolic (No. 23*) or 
unruly (No. 37), rollick around the borders and upon the pocket flaps. 
Demand for diversity was so great that designs drawn in the factories at 
Lyons were pricked on uncut waistcoats and sent to China, where with labor 
even cheaper than that of the Midi they could be satin-stitched and returned 
for finishing (No. 7). At Lyons, too, waistcoats were woven to order, in 
colors which denote the somewhat raffish ingenuity of the designers: "burn- 
ing Opera", "queasy Spaniard", and even "poisoned ape". 

From about 1785 to 1825, Jean Francois Bony (c. 1754-C.1825) was the 
prince of Lyons designers. Also a painter of scientifically naturalistic still-life 
in the Dutch manner, his work set the highest standard of grace and elegance 
(No. 24*). Embroidery designs were done in pen and ink on paper, without 
coloring, or with pencil on paper and then tinted with watercolor; others 
were of Chinese white on translucent brown paper. Most of the designs, 
probably originating in or around Lyons, seem to have been drawn up for 
particular patrons, who selected pattern, design and color scheme with a 
concern for the completed product which makes our selection of ready-made 
haberdashery a dreary chore. Lace (No. 25*) and printed cottons, when 
exotic, were employed (No. 16*), and scenes woven into pieces especially 
sized for waistcoats appeared (No. 23*). 

The French Revolution and its subsequent international tumults put an 
effectual end to the veste and veston; as aristocratic symbols, as the last fragile, 
splendid issue of the knightly breastplate they were de trop among plebeians. 
As befitted the new freedom and the new rebellion, gilets were shorter (Nos. 
50*, 52*), sometimes with large negligent collars revealing swathes of neck- 



cloth. Revolutionary motifs were used (No. 49), and neo-classic elements 
were often printed on rich or coarse materials (Nos. 46*, 48). As if to testify 
to the new distribution of wealth, three, four or five gilets were worn one 
on top of another, a kind of conspicuous waste made possible only because 
the male waist was conspicuously corseted. The responsibility for this change 
of fashion was not due to politics alone. Jacquard's loom, fought bitterly by 
the very silk weavers it freed, was declared public property in 1806, and 
figured woven textiles became general. One would think that during the two 
decades between 1790 and 1810, when society was disrupted as never before, 
the waistcoat would have become more flamboyant than ever. Yet it did 
not: new mechanical processes spread simultaneously with popular revolt, 
and the result, in clothing as in liberty, was indifference. Perhaps the last dim 
blaze of the waistcoat before it subsided gradually into the vest of current 
usage was in the court uniforms (No. 53*) of the Napoleonic period. Bona- 
parte, the first parvenu of Europe, at least recreated for a time the glitter, if 
not the skill of the eighteenth century. Napoleon was no idler; neither were 
his associates — but by organizing diplomatic protocol he enforced indices of 
rank which were repeated in clothing. 

Does the uncompromising decline of the waistcoat through the nineteenth 
century signify a corresponding decline in daring and the wherewithal to 
express it? Or a decline in leisure, brought about by renewed solidity in the 
social structure? Certainly the nineteenth century witnessed a deterioration 
of originality, of conceptual courage. It is the century of stylistic revivals, 
the era of custom rather than costume. Only during the Second Empire 
(1851-1870) in France, when a brittle restoration of court life gave rise to 
pageant and ceremony, do we find color, a little timorous poetry and some 
invention in masculine dress (Nos. 58, 59, 60, 61, 63, 64*). By and large 
the nineteenth century in the western world saw the victory of convention, 
convention in which the male, no longer an ornament but a fixture, became 
the model of steadfastness, stern persistence, and economic durability. Who 
but the renegade would wear a playful vest in the presence of Mr. Gladstone 
or M. Guizot? Victorian morals, that murky mixture of pious bereavement, 
paternalism and benevolent gloom, can be summed up, so far as men's 
clothing is concerned, in Carlyle's cautionary dictum, "There is safety in a 
swallow-tail". The United States was less circumspect. Men liked to express 
themselves, and the freedom, the fluctuant riches, the uninhibited practices 
of the frontier (Nos. 87, 88*) paid homage to energy with fancy clothes 
(Nos. 89, 90, 92, 93*). 

But compared to the elated vanity of the eighteenth century, these waist- 
coats are austere or stingy garments: colors are predominantly dark, and 
decoration is a little meagre and perfunctory. Covered by the funereal 





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expanse of a Prince Albert or sack coat, unseen save for a trifle of the collar 
(for a coat unbuttoned was an infallible sign of the reprobate), the waistcoat 
languished. Until the present, members of hunt clubs, liveried servants, or 
an occasional nonesuch of the stamp of Berry Wall or Alexander Woollcott 
(No. 97*) could still afford or afford to be seen in uncommon waistcoats, 
but to wear such an article was a sign of servitude or eccentricity, not leisured 
urbanity. 

By the beginning of World War I men's clothing had probably reached 
its nadir in both comfort and design. Choke collars, stiff hats, shoes with 
pointed toes, evening dress resilient as armor-plate were thrown off for the 
equally unyielding buttoned tunics, hard campaign hats and tight puttees of 
the service. Seldom has mortification of the flesh been carried to such ex- 
tremes by so many, and with so little purpose. It was natural that the cult 
of informality, the popularization of sport, the whole casual atmosphere of 
the 1920's should be reflected in clothing. The vest was almost discarded, 
and when cloth was rationed shortly before World War II, "casual" clothes 
became a compulsory fashion. The respite has been grateful yet not without 
undignified results: informality has verged on sloppiness, and the harrowing 
sameness of leisure clothes may be seen on any boardwalk. Men are begin- 
ning to tire of poinsettia shirts and fluorescent neckties. Something piquant, 
something in which cut, material and refinement can be shaped without 
garishness to individual taste is needed. For times of relaxation, Veblen's 
heavy ridicule might be taken as a watchword: "Our dress, therefore, in order 
to serve its purpose effectually, should not only be expensive, but it should 
also make plain to all observers that the wearer is not engaged in any kind 
of productive labor". 

Then too, if we may epitomize our theme, what male can say that this is 
an era in which his future is assured? If the bullet-proof space-suit is to be 
the uniform of tomorrow, dum vivimus, vestiamus. Be the waist covered with 
silk (No. 99*), tapestry (No. 103*), needlepoint (No. 106*), rayon satin 
(No. 108*) or brocade (No. 15*), let it be conspicuous — for its ingenuity, 
for its air and for its polish. 

Everett P. Lesley, Jr. and William Osmun 



CATALOGUE 

(The numbers set in parentheses after the description of the objects refer to 
the owners of the objects, as shown in the list of Contributors to the Exhibition 
printed on page 12. An asterisk (*) indicates that the object is illustrated.) 



WAISTCOATS 

ENGLAND 

1. White cotton with India print design. 
About 1720 (13) 

*2. White fancy silk with overspun conven- 
tionalized design; embroidered with gold 
thread, satin-stitch and couching. About 
1720 (11) 

*3. Ivory ribbed silk with polychrome silk 
embroidery probably of Chinese origin. 
Second half of the 18th century (9) 

4. Blue basket weave silk; floral design broche 
in white, red and green silk. 1760-1775 
(11) 

5. White silk with polychrome silk embroi- 
dery. Part of the coronation vesture of 
George III. 1761 (14) 

6. White satin with polychrome chain-stitch 
silk floral motif. About 1780 (9) 

7. Ivory satin with polychrome satin-stitched 
silk embroidery; uncut, unmounted. Em- 
broidery probably Chinese. About 1780 

(9) 
*8. Plum-colored broadcloth; cross-stitch de- 
signs in green, blue, yellow, red and white 
silk. Early 19th century (11) 
9. White wool, woven with floral design in 
red, blue and white silk; material prob- 
ably Indian. 1825-1850 (11) 

10. Black satin with polychrome wool satin- 
stitch embroidery. 1840-1860 (2) 

11. Black broadcloth, embroidered with black 
silk satin-stitch and blue silk French knots. 
About 1850 (11) 

12. Hunting-pink wool cloth with brass but- 
tons. Contemporary (1) 

13. Black velveteen with white satin piping. 
1952 (19) 

14. White silk and metal compound satin 
twill, with gold sprays on white ground. 
1952 (19) 

*15. Yellow silk and metal brocade, with de- 
sign of flowers in red, blue and yellow. 
1952 (19) 

FRANCE 

*I6. Pounced and painted India cotton; shades 
of blue, red and green with gilded outlines. 
Early 18th century (11) 

*17. Deep yellow satin with polychrome couch- 
ing and embroidery. About 1700 (9) 

*18. Light tan fancy silk; all-over pattern 
brocaded with metallic thread of gold and 
silver gilt. About 1710 (9) 

*19. Ivory taffeta, printed and painted with an 
all-over blue trellis pattern and pink roses. 
1700-1730 (9) 

8 



20. Blue satin with silk embroidery. 1725- 
1730 (9) 

21. Old rose fancy silk with woven floral and 
arabesque pattern in polychrome silk and 
tinsel with metallic thread. About 1750 

(9) 

*22. Ivory satin with polychrome silk floral 
embroidery. Second half of the 18 th cen- 
tury (5) 

*23. Stone gray ground woven satin; with 
decoration of pastoral scenes. Second half 
of the 18th century (9) 

*24. Ivory satin with polychrome silk floral 
embroidery in the manner of Jean Francois 
Bony C.1754-C.1825. Second half of the 18th 
century (9) 

*25. Alencon lace. Second half of the 18th cen- 
tury (2) 

26. White ribbed silk taffeta with red, blue 
and brown satin-stitch embroidery. Sec- 
ond half of the I8th century (11) 

27. White satin with polychrome silk em- 
broidery; uncut, unmounted. About 1760 

(9) 

28. Dark yellow fancy silk, with chain-stitch 
embroidery in blue, green, brown and 
black. 1770-1800 (11) 

29. White ribbed silk with polychrome chain- 
stitch floral embroidery. About 1775 (9) 

*30. Ivory taffeta embroidery with polychrome 
silk floral design; bull-fighting scene in 
metallic silver thread, silk and paillettes. 
1775-1800 (5) 
31. Ivory satin with polychrome silk floral 
embroidery. 1775-1800 (2) 

*32. White silk taffeta with polychrome silk 
embroidery. 1775-1800 (9) 

33. Ivory satin with polychrome silk embroi- 
dery of vintage scenes. About 1780 (9) 

34. Off-white satin with polychrome silk em- 
broidery of oriental pastoral scenes. About 
1780 (9) 

35. Purple satin with polychrome silk chain- 
stitch embroidery. About 1780 (9) 

36. Pale green ribbed silk taffeta with silk and 
chenille embroidery. About 1780 (9) 

37. Woven green silk twill with silver and old 
rose. About 1780 (9) 

38. Tete-de-negre ribbed silk with polychrome 
chain-stitch embroidery. About 1780 (9) 

39. White satin embroidered with polychrome 
silk, metallic bound thread, paillettes and 
paste. About 1780 (9) 

40. Off-white satin with polychrome floral 
embroidery of silk and chenille; applique-d 
panels of ribbed silk. About 1780 (9) 

41. Off-white silk twill woven with silver and 
blue tinsel. 1780-1790 (9) 



42. Pale blue satin with polychrome silk em- 
broidery. 1780-1790 (9) 

43. Pourpoint, white satin embroidered with 
polychrome silk panels of mythological 
scenes in long-and-short and satin-stitch; 
silver lace. Said by tradition to have been 
worn by the Dauphin, son of Louis XVI. 
1781-1789 (11) 

*44. Pale green ribbed silk with polychrome 
silk embroidery of floral pattern and theat- 
rical scene. 1783 (9) 
45. Off-white silk taffeta with polychrome 
silk embroidery, metallic thread, paillettes 
and paste. About 1790 (9) 

*46. Pale yellow satin, copper-plate printed 
with grotesques, arabesques and mytho- 
logical scenes. About 1790 (9) 

47. Woven silk twill of olive green, silver, 
blue and pink. 1790 (9) 

48. Toile de Jouy printed with neo-classic 
motifs in purple ink. 1790-1800 (9) 

49. Black wool cloth with polychrome silk em- 
broidery of Revolutionary motifs. About 
1792 (9) 

*50. Lemon yellow satin, striped in greens, 

browns and beige. 1795-1799 (6) 
51. White satin with polychrome silk embroi- 
dered pattern of small flowers; once the 
property of John Adams. Late 18th cen- 
tury (4) 

*52. Olive green satin woven with light green, 
salmon and white. Late 18th or early 19th 
century (5) 

*53. Purple brocaded velvet embroidered with 
gold and silver thread and sequins; part 
of a court costume. 1804-1814 (11) 

*54. White satin with sequin flowers and ver- 
tical appliqued stripes in tones of laven- 
der; once the property of Napoleon Bona- 
parte. 1810-1815 (4) 
55. White ribbed silk, embroidered with pink, 
green and blue silk in satin-stitch and 
French knots. About 1814 (11) 

*56. Brown stamped velvet with all-over pat- 
tern of silhouette portrait heads and the 
name "Lafayette". About 1830 (11) 

57. Royal blue satin with black velvet floral 
pattern. 1830-1840 (6) 

58. Red velvet with all-over design of leaf 
motifs in blue pile. 1840-1860 (5) 

59. Eggshell compound fancy taffeta, bro- 
caded with multicolored garlands of 
flowers. 1840-1860 (6) 

60. Green velvet with embroidery of green, 
mauve, brown, white and orange chenille. 
1840-1860 (2) 

61. Dark blue satin with appliqued embroi- 
dered sprays of flowers. 1840-1860 (2) 

62. Blue satin, embroidered with red and 
green silk satin-stitch. 1840-1860 (2) 

63. Ribbed silk taffeta in red, blue and green 
plaid. About 1850 (2) 

*64. Plum and beige voided velvet with stripes 
of floral pattern. 1850-1875 (6) 



65. Brocaded satin; gold and silver satin 
stripes with all-over brocade of flowers, 
leaves and branches. 1851-1870 (2) 

66. Ivory satin with woven scattered flowers 
in red, pink and white chenille. 1851-1870 
(2) 



67. Knitted jacket for wear underneath armor; 
silver gilt, yellow silk, and purple silk 
thread. First half of the 16th century (11) 

68. Silk damask; red with ivory pattern of 
fruit and flowers. Late 17th or early 18th 
century (2) 

*69. White ribbed silk embroidered with silk 
twist, gold thread, purl and flat tinsel, and 
multicolored silk. Early 18th century (11) 
70. Ribbed and watered old rose silk with 
floral scroll embroidery in gold-wrapped 
silk thread, tinsel and paillettes. About 
1750 (9) 

*71. Cisele voided satin velvet, white ground, 
red pile. 1765-1775 (11) 

72. Cloth of silver with woven pattern of tin- 
sel and metallic thread, interspersed with 
chenille and silk. About 1770 (9) 

73. Green iridescent silk with polychrome silk 
chain-stitch embroidery. About 1780 (9) 

*74. Cream-colored striped satin embroidered 
with flowers and bowknots, satin-stitch in 
metal thread and paillettes. 1785-1805 

(H) 

75. Red flannel trimmed with cotton galloon 
in blue, yellow, green, red and black; part 
of a livery. Early 19th century (11) 

76. White cotton velvet printed with green 
ink. About 1800 (9) 

*77. Ivory satin with decagonal medallions of 
dark brown; polychrome floral embroi- 
dery 1800-1810 (9) 

SPAIN AND PORTUGAL 

78. Knitted jacket for wear underneath armor; 
green and gold thread. Late 16th century 

(11) 

79. Cloth of silver woven with white silk, em- 
broidered with two tones of purple silk, 
silver thread and paillettes. About 1780 

(11) 

80. Wool compound cloth; red and white 
stripes, foliage and flowers in green. 1800- 
1825 (2) 

*81. Dark brown satin with slight iridescence; 

red weft and brown warp; floral pattern 

with figures. About 1840 (6) 
*82. Ivory silk grosgrain with alternating 

stripes of salmon-colored velvet and satin. 

1850-1870 (6) 

UNITED STATES 

83. Cream-colored ribbed silk with polychrome 
silk floral embroidery. Probably colonial. 
About 1760 (9) 

84. White quilted wool with blue embroidery; 
probably made from a Persian shawl. Once 
the property of George Washington. Prob- 
ably 1796-1799 (12) 



85. Light brown compound silk faille with 
leaf pattern in self-color and black. 1830- 
1840 (6) 

86. Wool Paisley weave with red, brown, gold 
and blue on black ground. 1835-1855 (6) 

87. Wool, cotton and silk compound cloth. 
Worn by Charles C. P. Arndt when shot 
and killed by James R. Vinevard. About 
1842 (20) 

*88. Buckskin lined with cotton stuff and heav- 
ily beaded. About 1850 (8) 

89. Velvet plaid in black, white and red. 
About 1850 (13) 

90. Black satin brocaded in red, white and 
blue peacock feather design. About 1850 
(13) 

91. Wool Paisley pattern, predominantly red 
with black Persian cone motif. About 
1850 (13) 

92. Cut and uncut voided velvet; floral pat- 
tern of beige, blue and rust on black 
ground. About 1850 (6) 

*93. Black velvet with polychrome silk floral 
embroidery. About 1860 (13) 

94. Purple satin with yellow cord embroidery. 
About 1860 (13) 

95. Black ribbed silk brocaded with magenta 
leaf pattern. About 1860 (13) 

96. White silk ground, embroidered with 
green and brown silk. 1908 (13) 

*97. Linen twill with polychrome wool and 
silk embroidery in split-stitch, satin-stitch, 
outline stitch and French knots; designed 
and made for the late Alexander Woollcott 
by Mrs. Theodore Roosevelt. 1939 (15) 
98. Silk twill with red, navy blue and yellow 
stripes. 1952 (1) 

*99. Silk twill in Paisley pattern; black, red, 
green and yellow on blue ground. 1952 

(3) 

100. Ribbed silk with black and green stripes. 
1952 (3) 

101. Silk twill of Paisley pattern; black, green, 
yellow and blue on red ground. 1952 (3) 

102. Ribbed silk with yellow, red and green 
stripes. 1952 (3) 

*103. Tapestry weave of white, green and yellow 
floral pattern. 1952 (7) 

104. Compound silk with pattern of dragons, 
clouds and arabesques. 1952 (7) 

105. Tan wool needlepoint ground with de- 
signs in colors. Contemporary (10) 

*106. Tan wool needlepoint ground covered 
with polychrome sporting motifs; by Mrs. 
Bettina Belmont Ward. Contemporary 
(17) 
107. Needlepoint cummerbund; dark blue 
ground with polychrome figures of foxes 
and hounds; by Mrs. Bettina Belmont 
Ward. Contemporary (17) 



* 108. Compound rayon satin twill; blue ground 
with all-over pattern of red and white. 
1952 (18) 

UNKNOWN PROVENANCE 

109. Ribbed silk with dark and light brown 
stripes, blue and white silk embroidery. 
1795-1805 (6) 
*110. Fancy salmon-colored silk with brown cut 
velvet overlay. About 1800 (9) 

111. Compound silk; coral warp and alternat- 
ing weft of blue, purple, green, yellow and 
white. Early 19th century (6) 

112. White satin with polychrome silk embroi- 
dery. Early 19th century (6) 

113. Fancy silk with green and wine stripes 
and small abstract all-over pattern. 1820- 
1830 (6) 

114. Voided black velvet with wine satin 
ground; all-over acorn and leaf pattern. 
1830-1840 (6) 

115. Black compound satin woven with floral 
pattern in blue, brown and white. 1830- 
1840 (6) 

1 16. Pale blue satin with quilted vermicelli de- 
sign. 1840-1860 (2) 

117. Silver gray satin with all-over woven floral 
pattern in green, violet and pink. 1850- 
1860 (6) 

SAMPLES AND FRAGMENTS 

118. Salesman's sample; ivory satin with poly- 
chrome silk embroidery. France, late 18th 
century (9) 

119. Three salesman's samples; satin with poly- 
chrome silk embroidery. France, late 18th 
century (9) 

120. Eighteen salesman's samples in various 
fabrics and types of embroidery. France, 
first half of the 19th century (5) 

121. Two fragments made for the bottom of a 
waistcoat; woven polychrome silk. France, 
late 18th century (9) 

122. Two fragments of a waistcoat; polychrome 
silk embroidery and colored prints on silk. 
France or England, late 18th century (9) 

EMBROIDERY DESIGNS AND 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

Designs for embroidered waistcoats; pen 
and ink, pencil, watercolor and Chinese 
white on white or translucent brown pa- 
per. France, 1775-1800 (5) 
Four facsimiles of etchings from Galerie 
des Modes et Costumes francais dessine's 
d'apres Nature, 1778-1787, Paris, no date. 

(5) 

Layout and designs for contemporary 

waistcoats (16) 



10 



SELECTED REFERENCES 

Trom the Cooper Union Libraries 



Bowen, Helen. A picture waistcoat of the 
eighteenth century. Antiques, vol. 1, no. 6, 
June 1922. pp. 257-259 

Cavallo, A. S. Two eighteenth century costumes. 
Detroit Institute of Arts Bulletin, vol. 31, no. 
1, 1951-52. pp. 11-15 

Cox, Raymond. Le musee historique des tissus; 
soieries et broderies, renaissance, Louis XIV, 
Louis XV, Louis XVI, directoire, premier em- 
pire. Paris, A. Guerinet, n.d. 2 vols. Vol. 1, 
plates 92-94, Vol. 2, plates 148-149, 169-171, 173 

Earle, Alice Morse. Two centuries of costume in 
America, MDCXX MDCCCXX. New York, 
The Macmillan company, 1903. 2 vols. "The 
evolution of coats and waistcoats", vol. 1, 
pp. 161-193 

Galerie des modes et costumes francais, dessines 
d'apres nature, 1778-1787; reimpression accom- 
pagnee d'une preface par M. Paul Cornu. Paris, 
E. Levy, [1912?] 6 vols. Vol. 1, plates 16, 22, 
33, 43, 45, 47, 49; Vol. 2, plates 63, 67, 69, 71, 
72, 75, 77, 79, 88, 99; Vol. 3, plates 112, 124, 
128, 148, 155, 158, 160; Vol. 4, plates 162, 177, 
206; Vol. 5, plates 231, 233, 234, 253, 263, 265, 
270; Vol. 6, plates 279, 281, 282 

Giafferri, Paul Louis Victor de. Histoire du cos- 
tume masculin francais. Paris, Nilsson [1927] 

Hammerstein, Hans von. Trachten der Alpen- 
lander. Vienna, H. Reichner, 1937 

Harbeson, Mrs. Georgiana Brown. American 
needlework, the history of decorative stitchery 
and embroidery from the late 16th to the 20th 
century. New York, Coward-McCann, 1938. 
Chapter 10 "Embroidered wedding gowns and 
waistcoats", pp. 65-68. Plates facing pages 12 
and 38 

Iverson, Marion Day. Color in Pilgrim and 
Puritan dress. Antiques, vol. 61, pp. 240-241, 
March, 1952 

Kelly, Francis M. A comely vest after the Per- 
sian mode. Connoisseur, vol. 88, pp. 96-99, 
August, 1931 

Lefferts, Charles Mackubin. Uniforms of the 
American, British, French and German armies 
in the war of the American revolution, 1775- 
1783. New York, The New-York historical 
society, 1926 



Little, Nina Fletcher. Winthrop Chandler. Art 
in America, vol. 35, pp. 77-168, April, 1947 

Mayor, A. Hyatt. Change and permanence in 
men's clothes. Metropolitan Museum of Art 
Bulletin. New Series. Vol. 8, pp. 262-269, pp. 
262-269. May, 1950 

McClellan, Elisabeth. History of American cos- 
tume, 1607-1870. New York, Tudor publish- 
ing company, 1937. "Men's apparel" pp. 217- 
273, 543-609 

Morazzoni, Giuseppe. La moda a Venezia nel 
secolo XVIII. Milano, Gli amici del Museo 
teatrale all Scala, 1931. Plates 65, 70, 78-81, 
83-84, 99 

Morshead, Owen Frederick. The Windsor uni- 
form. Connoisseur, vol. 95, pp. 242-251, May, 
1935 

Munday, A. E. English embroidery of the 
eighteenth century. Embroidery, vol. 2, no. 2, 
pp. 408, March, 1934 

Nevinson, J. L. Men's costume in the Isham col- 
lection. Connoisseur, vol. 94, pp. 313-320, 345. 
November, 1934 

Nevinson, J. L. English embroidered costume in 
the collection of Lord Middleton. Connois- 
seur, vol. 103, pp. 136-141, March, 1939 

Paris. Exposition universelle. 1900. Musee re- 
trospective de la classe 83, soies et tissus de 
soie . . . Rapport du comit£ d'installation. St. 
Cloud, Belin freres, 1900. Illustration facing 
page 22 

Picturesque representations of the dress and 
manners of the English. London, J. Murray, 
1814. Plates 9, 12, 14, 16, 18, 23, 31, 34, 39 

Saxe, Eleanor. The eighteenth century waist- 
coat. Bulletin of the Needle and bobbin club, 
vol. ll.no. 1, pp. 3-10, 1927 

Saxe, Eleanor B. Embroidered waistcoats: a 
phase of eighteenth century elegance. Metro- 
politan Museum of Art Bulletin, vol. 22, no. 1, 
pp. 10-12, January, 1927 

Warwick, Edward. Early American costume. 
New York, The Century company, 1929. pp. 
174-186,254-255,263-266 



11 



CONTRIBUTORS 

Jo the Exhibition 

B. Altman and Company (1) 

The Brooklyn Museum (2) 

Brooks Brothers, Inc. (3) 

Chicago Historical Society (4) 

The Cooper Union Museum (5) 

The Costume Institute of 

The Metropolitan Museum of Art (6) 

Mark Cross, Inc. (7) 

The Denver Art Museum (8) 

Richard C. Greenleaf (9) 

Robert Mazaltov (10) 

The Metropolitan Museum of Art (11) 

The Mount Vernon Ladies' Association 
of the Union (12) 

The Museum of the City of New York (13) 

Jon Pertwee (14) 

Mrs. Theodore Roosevelt (15) 

"Vogue" Magazine (16) 

Mrs. Bettina Belmont Ward (17) 

Bernard Weatherill, Inc. (18) 

Thomas Wing, Ltd. (19) 

State of Wisconsin, State Historical Society (20) 



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